We first report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Fritillaria taipaiensis
em> and determine its characteristics, sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships by comparing it with complete cp genomes of Liliaceae s.l. (including e.g. Nartheciaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Asparagaceae) species obtained from NCBI Genbank. We show that the ycf1, ycf15 and infA genes have become pseudogenes or are lost in some of the seventeen Liliaceae species, and that dispersed repeats are prevailing among the four types of repeats (dispersed, palindromic, complement and tandem repeats). The number of simple sequence repeats ranged from 53 to 84 in the seventeen species, with mononucleotide repeats being the most abundant, followed by dinucleotides. A total of nine genes with positive selection sites were identified (atpB, atpE, ndhF, ndhH, petB, rpl2, rpl20, rpl22 and ycf2). Furthermore, we examined 19 mutational hotspot regions, including three coding regions (rps16, infA and rpl22) and sixteen non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete cp genomes and protein-coding sequences showed that Fritillaria
is most closely related to Lilium
. Moreover, Asparagus and Polygonatum, Hosta and Yucca are closely related to the Liliaceae. These results will contribute to further study of evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic relationships in Liliaceae s.l.