, unlike other Fritillaria
species, is a narrowly endemic species. It has a brown checkered speckled color on each tepal and also has regular yellow intense colors on the tepals. Its large bell-shaped appearance when the ﬂower is open is one of its most striking ornamental features. However, F. aurea
, plant numbers are limited in their natural habitats, and their numbers are decreasing day by day; they are even confronted with the risk of extinction owing to the damage resulting from human activities. This detailed investigation of reproductive biology plays a vital role in determining the evolutionary success and survival of F. aurea
, largely in determining the effectiveness of their reproductive performance. Our results indicate that the species exhibits a very low partial dichogamy and herkogamy structure, as well as self-incompatible pollination. The ﬂowering period ranges from March to April. Average seed viability, average seed number, and seed germination were determined as 71%, 255, and 45%, respectively. The pollen viability, pollen grains, and stigma receptivity were found as 96%, 392.000, and 85%, respectively. The pollen/ovule ratio (P/O) and self-incompatibility index (SII) in the spontaneous cross-pollination were detected as 1537 and 0, respectively. Flowers of F. aurea
were visited by several insect species, mostly honeybees (Apis mellifera); Bombus sp. and Vespa sp. also played a minor role in pollination. To sum up, these results not only lay a solid foundation for further reproductive biology investigations to more broadly reveal the mechanisms of F. aurea
endangerment in the future but also provide a reliable theoretical basis for hybridization breeding of parents.